How Do You Make Vermicompost Bin?

Well, I can tell you everything about starting a vermicompost bin but there are two things you need to keep in mind.

1. You have to be someone who has ten to twenty minutes a week dedicated to this and every few months, (four, five, six months or so) you need to have three hours for harvesting for this.

There is no exception you really need the time.

So if you’re gonna start this project you have to know you need this time and also point 2 is you need to be very attentive to details.

You cannot miss any details when taking care of this.

There are living beings in here and one mistake, you could have a mass exodus, you can have a lot of problems and then what you end up doing is throwing this out and creating more garbage than you were intending on saving.

So, if you can, put in the time and you’re really – a real keener – then this is for you and without further ado I’ll explain how to make this.

What you will need:

– A bin. It cannot be transparent and it must be wide, not tall.

I use this 53 litre Rubbermaid bin that you can find in any hardware store in North America.

A mat that you will place underneath a bin to collect any residues from coming underneath.

Weights to hold up the bin and allow airflow.

I use these leftover pots but you could use bricks or containers.

A drill. Cleaning products. Bedding.

It could be a ton of shredded newspapers or dead leaves.

If you are using newspapers, make sure that it is printed with soy based ink.

Make sure that the bedding is in small pieces.

Do not put a full sheet of paper in there and expect it to work and don’t use computer paper (that has been bleached).

That’s not good for the worms.

Spray bottle with clean water.

A handful of potting soil or sand.

At least 50 red worms.

You can find a local composting organization that sells them or search for vermicompost on Craigslist.

You can also order them online.

And of course selected food scraps in small pieces.

The worms are vegans with a few allergies and a few exceptions.

They eat fruits, vegetables, plants, coffee grounds (even with the filter), teabags and eggshells.

They can even eat rice and pasta but make sure there’s no oil or any seasoning on them.

They cannot eat lemon, oranges, garlic or onions.

You could put some in very small quantities but I wouldn’t risk it. Do not put anything else in the vermicompost bin.

Do not put meat, dairy, oil or any seasoning with salt or vinegar or any animal or human excrements.

That being said, let’s make the vermicompost bin.

Drill many holes on all sides of the compost bin, including the bottom.

Make sure you put the plastic scraps leftover in a recycling bin if your city accepts them or throw it in the garbage.

Do not wash it down the drain.

Wash the bin thoroughly because you don’t know where it’s been or who touched them.

Set up the mat and the weights where the bins will be sitting on.

The weights are there to allow airflow.

Put the bedding in the bin.

You want a depth of about 20 to 25 centimetres.

Make sure it is thoroughly damp like a wrung out sponge.

Then put the food scraps in the bin and the soil.

Put the worms in the bin.

Cover with more bedding.

Once you have your vermicompost bin established, you’ll be needing to feed them once a week with food scraps.

You don’t just open this bag like a garbage can and throw in your banana peels and garbage or whatever and call it a day.

It doesn’t work like that.

You’ll be needing to keep your food scraps in a separate bin and making sure that the food scraps aren’t small pieces then once a week it will open this up, put in your food scraps and cover it with bedding to prevent smells from going around.

So you cover with your bedding and also another thing to keep in mind is that you put it in a different spot in your bin every week.

So one week you’ll put it in a corner, one week you’ll put it in the center, another week you’ll put it in another corner etc.

It gives the worms an opportunity to move around.

Finally, you’ll be putting a fresh new batch of bedding once a month and I will be putting a PDF link that’s very in-depth it’s my go-to guide that will really help you answer more questions that you may have.


How to Change Tractor Oil

It should be remembered that changing the oil in the tractor engine is an integral part of the process of servicing the diesel lubrication system. Maintenance of the diesel engine lubrication system includes: changing the oil in the tractor system, flushing the system itself, flushing the oil centrifuge and flushing the turbocharger filter.

Perform maintenance of the tractor lubrication system within the time specified in the manufacturer’s instructions. How to change the engine oil correctly and which oil to choose?

In order to find out which oil is suitable for your tractor, you can use the service manual or search on sites with technical characteristics such as tractorid or tractorlist.

To change the oil in the tractor diesel lubrication system, do the following:

  1. Place the tractor over the inspection pit;
  2. Immediately after stopping the heated diesel engine, unscrew the drain plugs of the crankcase, the plug in the upper part of the oil cooler and drain the tractor oil into the prepared container;
  3. Flush the plugs and breather with diesel fuel. After flushing, moisten the breather pad with oil and shake off excess;
  4. Screw in the plugs, pour 32 liters of fresh tractor oil into the crankcase, start up the diesel and run for 2-3 minutes;
  5. Stop the diesel engine, after 10 minutes measure the oil level for the tractor and top up to the upper mark on the oil dipstick;

With an engine running at low speed, the tractor oil level should be between the marks. The diesel engine is not allowed to operate when the oil level is below the lower mark on the oil dipstick!

When carrying out maintenance, after 50 hours of operation of a new tractor and maintenance 3, an additional flushing of the lubrication system is performed.

For flushing, after draining the used tractor oil from the system:

  1. Screw in drain plugs;
  2. Pour flushing oil into the diesel crankcase;
  3. Start the diesel engine, run for 2-3 minutes at an average crankshaft speed;
  4. Stop the diesel engine and drain the mixture into a container;

After completing the above procedures, add fresh tractor oil as described above. Also, if necessary, flush the pump oil receivers, perform this operation in conjunction with flushing the lubrication system.

How To Use Laser Levels

Construction or repairs can be greatly simplified if you know how to use a laser level – a video lesson in our article and a detailed description of the process will help. Let’s say right away that this device will help you achieve maximum accuracy when measuring both horizontal and vertical surfaces.

Preparation for work

Best laser levels

1. Choosing a level

Smoothness of surfaces and accuracy of measurements are important in any installation. However, during the construction of a building, an error of 10 millimeters is permissible, while during repairs in an apartment, it can lead to a fatal error.

Therefore, for each case, there is a separate device that will help you avoid troubles. They are divided into groups based on their accuracy and principles of work.

  • High-precision – admit an error of no more than a millimeter
  • Exact – their average error is already two millimeters
  • Technical – they can have the largest offset in measurements, which is 10 millimeters.

According to the principle of action, the levels can be divided into three groups.


Their main component is an optical tube that magnifies the image by almost 30 times. With the help of specially marked slats and directional light, it helps to align the structure in the horizontal plane.


They not only read information, but also remember it. Therefore, they can be called the most accurate among the analogues. However, they have two drawbacks – their high price and susceptibility to damage.


These are the most commonly used devices. They are easy to use and require no special training to operate.

Tools of this type project radiation onto the surface and allow you to work with entire planes. In addition, they are easy to use and install. Since this type is one of the most popular and well-known on the market, further we will talk about it.


They are distinguished by the presence of a rotating head. It makes 60 revolutions per minute and projects the light strips onto a plane using two lasers. The lower the rotation speed, the better the emission band will be visible.


As their name suggests, they can only display points. One of the advantages of these levels is their ability to work both on walls and on floors and ceilings.


Can build horizontal, vertical and diagonal beams in different planes. Most often they are used to build fastening lines.

2. Installation

Before starting measurements, you need to install the device. First, check the type of food. Charge it or insert batteries if necessary.

Step-by-step preparation of the tool for operation

  • Check the room for obstructions to the sensor, otherwise the laid line will be interrupted
  • Choose the most level area for location and place the device on a special holder or tripod. After that, secure the structure securely. It should be noted that it is prohibited to move the level during work.
  • Observe the distance specified in the instructions at which the device must be located from the measured object.
  • Be sure to protect your eyes. Wear special glasses and take care of children and animals. Since the radiation is very powerful, it can harm them.

3. Setting

For most models, the instructions are always almost the same, but sometimes there are peculiarities in setting up devices of certain brands. If we talk about the simplest levels, then their body usually has two bubble levels and screws. You can align the beam by twisting them gently.

If the device has a self-leveling function, then you should not rely entirely on it. The horizon will have to be rechecked and, if necessary, tighten the handle again. It is better to set the indicators to 0. This figure means the distance from the floor to the instrument beam. This method makes it easier to find the laser line when working outdoors.

Some models can project multiple light bars. Customize the display to exactly the one you need. This way you can align them by looking at how many degrees there are between each guideline. However, we do not recommend using all functions at the same time, as they can confuse you.

4. Additional devices

Sometimes the adjustment and proper installation of the device is not enough to accurately determine the irregularities.

Therefore, to improve the quality of work, you can use additional tools such as a staff, target and beam receiver.

  1. The need for a rail arises in cases when on the surface it is necessary to draw several parallel guides at the same distance from each other.
  2. The target is sold directly with the device. It is a plastic plate with several concentric circles drawn on it. Such a device is suitable for those who use the level in a large room and will increase the accuracy of the projection transfer.
  3. The radiation of the device can be almost doubled if a successor is installed on it. With it, the projection will be visible even in sunny weather outside. It is worth noting that you need to think in advance about purchasing a successor of the same brand as the main tool. This will avoid the trouble of incompatible mechanisms.

How to use the laser level correctly for various purposes

The level can be called a very useful thing in the household. You can use it for any purpose related to the decoration of your home, from building a house to decorating.

Wall alignment

The biggest challenge in home renovation is wall alignment. Here he can cope flawlessly with any problems. To do this, you need to direct the beam along the wall.

Then take a ruler and place it perpendicular to the radiated line. On the measuring scale, carefully look at which of these points there is a deviation from the norm. You will then calculate the required material layer required to level the wall.

How to use a laser level to level the floor

To level the floor, using the laser level, as well as for walls, is extremely simple.

It is important from the very beginning to align the tool, then include a horizontal line and mark its extreme points. Then turn the device and do the same along the entire plane of the floor, connecting the points to each other. After that, you will have a perfectly flat straight line that will show the height of the required report or material fill.

Wallpaper pasting

The device will also be useful for wallpapering rooms. The vertical beam will help to perfectly align the joints, and the horizontal one will be necessary for pasting borders or other decorative elements.
You can also check the quality of the work that the construction team has done with it. In case of identified deviations, you can demand to re-glue the wallpaper or reduce the cost of the services provided.

Furniture installation

The bubble leveler and all kinds of rulers have long become irrelevant in this matter. Modular furniture is a very complex structure that requires a lot of calculations.

Therefore, to keep your shelves and cabinets level, draw a horizontal laser line. Now, focusing on it, you can fix everything you need to the walls.

Laying tiles

The level helps to position the tiles at a strictly right angle.

To do this, turn on the cross-type construction of planes. The radiation is converted into a mesh where the center of the crossed lines coincides with the center of the seams between the tiles. Next, align each side of the tile along the guide strips.

Device selection

Before buying a level, consider how often you will be using it. For home use, for example, in order to hang a picture, self-leveling professional models with many functions are not needed. We advise you to focus on a few points when buying a device:

  • Measurement errors.
  • The distance the beam can reach.
  • Working hours.
  • Is there a possibility of self-leveling.
  • At what temperatures does the device function normally.
  • Equipment.
  • The quality of the material from which the level is made.

Compliance with safety rules

Do not use the device at temperatures below 20 and above 50 degrees. This is fraught with the fact that the device may start to work incorrectly.
Due to the complex optical design, which is easily damaged, the laser level must be stored in a case. In it, it will be protected from moisture, dust and unnecessary shock. The bag in which the device is stored must be clean and dry.

Also, after work, all dirt must be removed from the tool. In doing so, pay special attention to the lenses, it is better to handle them with a soft cloth so as not to scratch the surface.

Growing oyster mushrooms at home

To grow oyster mushrooms at home, it is not necessary to be a specialist in mycology (the science of mushrooms), you just need to follow the instructions for growing. All instructions are quite simple, it will not be difficult to follow them, subject to great desire on your part. First of all, it is necessary to stock up oyster mushroom mycelium. It can be purchased at any company that grows mushrooms on an industrial scale, or in a special online store that will send you mycelium by mail.

For the first experiment, do not buy more than 1 kg. 3-4 kg of mushrooms can be grown from it, which is quite enough to get acquainted with the technology. Keep the mycelium in the refrigerator at a temperature of 2-4 ° C. Here we will consider the cultivation of these mushrooms in an intensive way.

Substrate preparation

The best raw material for the preparation of the substrate is straw of wheat or barley, husk of buckwheat, husk of sunflower, chopped stalks and ears of corn. You should not start with sawdust or shavings of deciduous trees, it is difficult to grow on them. Also you can buy special mushroom growing kits.

Raw materials must be clean, with no signs of mold. You will need about 10 kg of raw material, which will need to be crushed into fractions up to 4-5 cm.

In order to exclude the infection of the substrate with undesirable organisms, as well as for its moistening, it is necessary to conduct heat treatment. To do this, pour the crushed substrate into bulk dishes and fill it to the top with water. Cook for 1.5-2 hours, the softer the substrate, the less you have to cook.

Then drain the water and cool the substrate to 25-28 ° C. It should be moist, but not waterlogged. Squeeze it in your hand – water should not flow, only the appearance of a few drops is permissible.

The formation of mushroom blocks

Oyster mushrooms are grown, usually in plastic bags. Take 2 bags, such that 5 kg of substrate will fit in each of them. Packages, as well as the substrate should be disinfected. To do this, rinse them and place for 1-2 hours in a 1-2% solution of bleach.

Now that the bags are ready for use, fill them in layers with substrate and mycelium (approximately 5-6 cm of substrate, 0.5 cm of mycelium on top, and so on to the top). The last layer should also be a substrate. Then tie a bag at the neck and make a perforation. In a checkerboard pattern, every 10-15 cm, make holes 1-2 cm in size, or holes.

Incubation period

Ready mushroom blocks should be placed in a room intended for growing mushrooms. The incubation period lasts from 10 to 15 days. At this time, it is necessary to maintain the temperature at the level of 18-22 ° С, to air the room several times a day, to exclude the penetration of flies.

The first 3-4 days, the substrate inside the bags will heat up. The most important thing is to prevent an increase in internal temperature above 30 ° C, because this can lead to the death of mycelium. You can reduce the temperature with a fan, directing it directly to the mushroom blocks.

Lighting at this stage of development is not required. On the 3-4th day, you will notice how the whitish threads of the mycelium begin to penetrate the thickness of the substrate.

After about 10-12 days, the overgrown mycelium will completely fill the mushroom block, which will become a dense homogeneous mass of white with the corresponding mushroom smell.

Fruiting period

The most interesting process is the period of bearing oyster mushrooms. If you waited for him, then you did everything right. But do not relax, before harvesting you still have to work hard. After the end of the incubation period in a room with mushroom blocks, you must:

  • reduce air temperature to 10-15 ° C;
  • provide 8-10 hours of fluorescent lighting;
  • increase air humidity up to 90-95%;
  • often ventilate the room (up to 4 times a day).

To maintain high humidity, you can spray water on the walls and floor of the room, while avoiding the ingress of water into the substrate. Under optimal conditions, the rudiments of fruiting bodies will appear very soon through the slots. The entire fruiting period takes 10-15 days.

In recent days, mushroom caps are growing very rapidly. This period of time is the most suitable for harvesting. It is better to twist the mushrooms from the substrate, and not cut.

After the first wave of the crop, ventilate the room well and wait for the second wave, which will please you after 2 weeks. Indoor conditions remain the same. In total there can be up to 4 waves of fruiting, but the first and second are the most fruitful – about 75% of the total crop can be removed from them.

After the 4th wave, mushroom blocks that have ceased to bear fruit need to be replaced, and for owners of personal plots they can become an excellent fertilizer.

If for you growing oyster mushrooms from scratch seems too complicated, then there is another option. Some mushroom farms, with an established business, sell ready-made mushroom blocks (substrate inoculated with mycelium) with detailed instructions on how to grow mushrooms at home.

You only need to place these bags in a suitable room where you need to create the necessary conditions for growing, and after some time to harvest.

As you can see, growing oyster mushrooms at home is not so difficult. The main thing is to have desire and patience, and then you will understand how mushroom growing can be a fun and enjoyable activity.

Kitchen Amenities: Hostess Secrets

When planning your kitchen, remember the main thing – first of all, this is a working room, which should be functional and convenient. No matter what brilliant ideas were put into practice, the dining room remains the place where exactly practical actions are performed. For example, processing products, their storage, cooking all kinds of dishes, washing and storing dishes. If you don’t forget about it when designing it, you will greatly facilitate the life of not only yourself, but also your family and friends. Continue reading “Kitchen Amenities: Hostess Secrets”

Snow-White Clean Kitchen? No Problem!

We want so much even from a very small kitchen: beauty, practicality, comfort and cleanliness. But, I must say that all these requirements are quite feasible, not only with a wave of a magic wand, but using a well-thought-out layout and reasonable technological solutions.

How to keep your kitchen clean

The cleanliness of the kitchen is largely determined not by the color of the finish, but by the property of its surface. On glossy facades, even after the most thorough cleaning, small imperfections will quickly appear, porous surfaces and synthetic fabrics will quickly absorb odors.

Reasonable organization of the kitchen space will help to maintain cleanliness without any problems:

  • the glass screen on the kitchen apron next to the sink is much faster to clean and wipe from splashes than the rough surface of the wall,
  • kitchen utensils on fasteners next to the stove will help to keep all the necessary trifles on hand,
  • railing with paper towels above the work surface will help to quickly remove any stain and avoid long cleaning after cooking dinner,
  • stand for drying dishes, a touch-sensitive tap, a trash can with a hinged lid and a foot pedal: these pleasant little things will help you keep your kitchen clean without much effort.

Small kitchen? Practical tips

Small-sized kitchens are often found in our apartments, and even in your own cottage there are not always enough free meters for a spacious kitchen. It’s just worth taking it for granted and see what can be done in the area that is reserved for the kitchen space. Take all reserves into account:

  • the working surface can be wrapped with an angle along the walls, significantly expanding its capabilities,
  • under the entire working surface place cabinets for large dishes and built-in appliances – an oven, a dishwasher, a washing machine,
  • if you really had to save on the area for the kitchen, do not save on its technical equipment, it will help even organize a fully functional and convenient kitchen kingdom a few meters away,
  • use all the reserves from the ceiling to the floor: high cabinets with mezzanines to the ceiling, suspended ceiling structures, kitchen rails next to the wall along the work surface.

Practical decor for the kitchen

Laconic, light materials and simple forms will give freshness to the kitchen interior. A good mix of natural materials and practical plastic will help to make the kitchen both cozy and functional. For example, translucent blinds may be sufficient for windows, for organizing a lighting system it is wise to use ceiling mounted lights and spotlights above the work surface and dining table. The design of the table, chairs and cabinets without unnecessary details will also simplify the process of maintaining cleanliness and give the interior visual ease.

Kitchen mechanisms to save space

Kitchen utensils are often of various sizes and shapes, which, of course, can create significant difficulties for storing all this variety. But it turns out that you can not only fit large pots and pans into an ordinary cupboard, but also in free space make a couple of shelves for small stewpan. To do this, you need to use not a standard shelf in the cabinet, but various kitchen mechanisms.

It can be metal corner constructions (pans and volumetric pans are placed on them), carousel-type systems (small kitchen utensils are stored on it), pull-out containers, drying dishes, dividers that delimit the volume of the box into cells. Then a few tiers of utensils will fit in the most ordinary cabinet and getting a saucepan even from the farthest corner will become simple and quick.

Very simple ways to organize your kitchen.

An indispensable tool in saving space for small kitchens will be multifunctional transforming furniture. Retractable and folding tables, folding chairs, sliding work surfaces – all this is easy to remove if necessary and quickly put back on. And instead of massive, wide doors for cabinets under the worktop, which are very inconvenient in narrow kitchens, you can use folding doors, sliding doors or textile screens.

No more confusion in the lockers!

The hustle and bustle, as you know, does not contribute to cleanliness, comfort, or just a pleasant process of cooking dinner in the kitchen. A modular storage system in a drawer near the work area will best help in the fight against such chronic confusion. Add a shallow drawer with ready-made or home-made dividers to fit the size of spoons, forks, jars for spices and other kitchen utensils. And voila – everything is in its place, and the kitchen surfaces are free from unnecessary objects and the space seems not only cleaner, but also more spacious.

How to Remove Bad Smell From Animals in the Apartment?

If a pet has appeared in your house, you will have to be prepared for the fact that with it a specific and not very pleasant smell will appear in the house. There is only one way to deal with this smell – it is to keep the rooms clean.

Prepare for the new tenant to appear in the apartment in advance:

1. Allocate space for the tray

  • The place should be secluded enough so that no one bothers the cat;
  • The cat should easily fall into its tray;
  • It should be convenient for you to clean the area around the tray;
  • It is desirable that the place of the cat’s toilet is well ventilated.

2. Place for the pet

Think over where your pet will sleep, prepare a laying for a puppy or a basket (box) for a kitten. All accessories should be easy to wash, wash.

3. The established order for the pet

If the house has carpets, think about whether it is time for you to part with them. If you are not ready to get rid of carpets for good, roll them up and put them in storage, at least for as long as your pets get used to the order you set.

4. Interior for the pet

Cover upholstered furniture with covers or covers that are easy to wash.

5. Pet cleaning

Get a vacuum cleaner with a variety of brush heads and great net power.

We will understand the causes of an unpleasant odor

1. Bad smell

Any dog, even a healthy dog, has an unpleasant smell of a dog.

This smell comes from the hair and from the jaws of dogs. In order to minimize this aroma, observe the rules of hygiene for the animal:

  • Wash your dog regularly at least once a week, use special shampoos;
  • Using dog toothpaste, brush your pet’s teeth;
  • Comb wool with rubber or silicone brushes;
  • Arriving home after a walk, wash not only the paws, but also the area at the tail, as well as the stomach.

2. Puddles in the apartment

Cats and dogs leave puddles in the apartment.

  • Such troubles happen if the cat does not like its tray. The tray may be small or in a crowded area. Most often, the cat is looking for another place if its tray is dirty. The cats are large neat with a very sharp sense of smell, so you can’t make him go about their business in a poorly washed tray.
  • For both cats and dogs, odor release is a protective reflex. Perhaps your pets are frightened, offended, or excited by something. Try to find out the causes of stress and create normal emotional conditions for the animal.
  • If new smells appear in the house, the cat begins to mark the territory, recalling who is the boss in the house.
  • Also, the cause of unexpected puddles can be an animal’s disease.
  • If the cat is not neutered and the cat is not sterilized, they will, by their nature, mark the territory. This “flavor” is very corrosive and difficult to get rid of.

How to solve the problem of eliminating unpleasant odors in the house

1. Puddles behind your pet

The puddles behind your pet need not only to be cleaned, but also to be thoroughly disinfected.

Chlorine-containing substances disinfect the treatment area and effectively remove odor. After applying them, ventilate the room well.

2. Odor elimination

To eliminate the smell of urine in a cat or dog, oxidizing agents such as:

  • an aqueous solution of vinegar;
  • instead of vinegar, use fresh lemon juice;
  • a three percent solution of hydrogen peroxide;
  • potassium permanganate;
  • iodine solution in water.

3. Useful advice

The pungent odor will not spread if immediately after the trouble has occurred, wash the stain with ordinary household soap and then treat it with a cloth soaked in alcohol or vodka.

4. Stain removal

If the carpet is damaged by the urine of the animal, thoroughly blot the puddle as soon as possible. And then you can apply different methods to remove stains and odors from carpet:

  • Make an aqueous vinegar solution in the proportion of one part vinegar to two parts water. Rinse the contaminated area with this solution, capturing an area slightly larger than the stain. Rinse again with clean water. Dry the carpet well.
  • An excellent sorbent and assistant in getting rid of unpleasant odors is soda. Generously fill the stain with soda (removing excess liquid with a napkin). Leave for a long time, for example, at night, and then remove the baking soda with a broom or vacuum cleaner. Soda can be replaced with ground coffee (naturally, only on color-appropriate coatings).

5. Laundry soap

From the surface of upholstered furniture, the urine stain is washed off with laundry soap.

For this purpose, laundry soap grated is mixed with warm water until gruel is obtained and applied to the treated area. After half an hour, a crust forms, which must be removed with a damp sponge or rag. For upholstered furniture of a dark color, use a solution of iodine in water (15 drops of iodine in half a glass of water) or a weak solution of potassium permanganate.

6. How to process the marks on a wooden floor or linoleum?

Traces of an unpleasant surprise are treated with an aqueous solution of white table vinegar in a ratio of three to one. The room must be well ventilated.

7. Fighting an old smell

If the smell is old, especially in apartments where no one has struggled with this problem for a long time, use an ozonizer. Ozone deodorizes and disinfects air in any domestic premises.